Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the 60 naturally occurring cannabinoids found in a cannabis plant. Unlike Tethrahydocannabdiol (THC), known for its psychoactive elements, CBD is non-intoxicating and can offer relief and benefits without the disconcerting feelings of lethargy or dysphoria. The majority of information on the Internet today, highlights the potential benefits of CBD, but are there known side effects that users should be aware of and is there a limit to how much CBD one person can safely consume?
The Potential Side Effects of CBD
Multiple studies, published as early as 1980, suggest that CBD has minimal side effects and is overall safe for consumption. Nonetheless, consumers should be made aware of any known, potential drawbacks of something you are putting in your body. Below, we discuss the findings from each recorded study and review on the safety and known side effects of CBD.
1980 Study in Pharmacology
On January 3, 1980, Pharmacology published their findings conducted during a study in which they tested eight healthy volunteers and 15 patients with epilepsy, looking at the side effects of CBD when consumed daily for a month. Their reported conclusions were, ‘All patients and volunteers tolerated CBD very well and no signs of toxicity or serious side effects were detected on examination.’
International Journal of Neuroscience
In 1986, oral doses, ranging from 100 to 600 mg per day of cannabidiol were given to 5 patients with dystonic movement disorders. In addition to recording specific benefits, this study also uncovered mild side effects of CBD such as hypotension, dry mouth, psychomotor slowing, lightheadedness, and sedation. It is also noteworthy, that during this study 2 patients given CBD in doses over 300 mg per day seemed to aggravate their Parkinson’s symptoms. Yet in 2014 a separate paper described how CBD significantly improves the lives of those with Parkinson’s disease.
Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol
Most recently in 2011, a review on the safety and side effects of cannabidiol, found that CBD might interfere with the hepatic drug metabolism, alteration of in vitro cell viability, decreased fertilization capacity or the reduced activity of p-glycoprotein. Has a pharmacist or doctor ever told you not to drink or eat grapefruit while taking a prescription medication? Grapefruit and CBD have a similar effect on P450, an enzyme found in the liver, which metabolizes different kinds of drugs in the human body. If taken in large doses, CBD can inhibit the metabolizing properties of P450, temporarily neutralizing the effects of other medicinal products in the body’s system. This side effect is also responsible for why cannabidiol counteracts the effects of THC.
2006 Study Argentinian Study
In 2006 a group of scientist hypothesized that there are cannabinoid receptors in human’s salivary glands. In fact, their hypothesis was correct, which is most likely the reason that one of the previously discovered side effects of CBD is what’s commonly known as cotton-mouth. When CBD interacts with the endocannabinoidsystem, it inhibits the secretion of saliva, thus leaving some users with a dry sensation in their mouth.
Can you overdose on CBD?
Cannabidiol and other cannabinoids are known to be non-toxic, with no known fatal overdose levels ever reported. The previously mentioned study from 2011 indicated that chronic use and high doses up to 1,500 mg/day of CBD are reportedly well tolerated in humans. The Department of Health and Human Services states, ‘no signs of toxicity or serious side effects have been observed following chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers (Cunha et al., Pharmacology 21:127-185, 1980), even in large acute doses of 700 mg/day (Consroe et al., Pharmacol, Biochem, Behav. 40:701-708, 1991).’
As you can see, there is evidence that supports CBD being a safe substance with minor side effects. We want to hear from you. Have you ever experienced side effects from using CBD? Please leave comments below.
HOME / THE ONLY CBD USER’S MANUAL YOU NEEDThe Only CBD User’s Manual You NeedThis CBD User’s manual for patients that addresses key questions about cannabidiol and cannabis therapeutics.
By: Project CBD
In 2009, a handful of CBD-rich cannabis strains were discovered serendipitously in Northern California, America’s cannabis breadbasket, where certified patients could access medical marijuana legally. Thus began a great laboratory experiment in democracy involving CBD-rich cannabis therapeutics. The advent of whole plant CBD-rich oil as a grassroots therapeutic option has changed the national conversation about cannabis. It’s no longer a question of whether medical marijuana works—today the key question is how to use cannabis for maximum therapeutic benefit. But most health professionals have little experience in this area. Here is a CBD User’s Manual for patients that addresses key questions about cannabidiol and cannabis therapeutics.
What Is CBD?Cannabidiol or CBD is a non-intoxicating component of the cannabis plant with enormous therapeutic potential. Although CBD doesn’t make people feel high like THC does, it’s causing quite a buzz among scientists, health professionals, and medical marijuana patients who are using CBD-rich products to treat a wide range of conditions—chronic pain, cancer, Crohn’s, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, PTSD, cardiovascular disease, anxiety, antibiotic-resistant infections, multiple sclerosis, schizophrenia, and more. Academic research centers in the United States and elsewhere are currently studying the effects of CBD on these and other ailments. Scientists refer to CBD as a “promiscuous” compound because it confers therapeutic benefits in many different ways while tapping into how we function physiologically and biologically on a deep level.
Which Is Better CBD Or THC?Cannabidiol and THC (The High Causer) are the power couple of cannabis therapeutics; they work best together. CBD and THC interact synergistically to potentiate each other’s curative qualities. CBD enhances THC’s painkilling and anticancer properties, while lessening THC’s psychoactivity. CBD can also mitigate adverse effects caused by too much THC, such as anxiety and rapid heartbeat. When both compounds are present in sufficient amounts in the same cannabis strain or product, CBD will lower the ceiling on the THC high while prolonging its duration. (“Relaxing but not intoxicating” is how one patient described CBD-rich cannabis.) CBD broadens the range of conditions treatable with cannabis, such as liver, cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, which may be less responsive to THC-dominant remedies. CBD and THC both stimulate neurogenesis, the creation of new brain cells, in adult mammals.
What’s The Best Way To Take CBD?The most appropriate delivery system for CBD-rich cannabis is one that provides an optimal dose for a desired duration with few unwanted side effects. CBD-rich cannabis flower varietals for smoking or vaping are available in many medical marijuana dispensaries, but most CBD patients prefer non-inhalable products made with cannabis oil concentrates. Although banned by federal law, measurable doses of potent CBD-rich cannabis remedies are available in many non-smokable forms and can be utilized in various ways.
Can CBD Cure Epilepsy?Marijuana has a rich history as a medicine for quelling seizures and convulsions going back thousands of years. In the mid-19th century, the U.S. Pharmacopeia listed cannabis tincture as a treatment for pediatric epilepsy, and subsequent scientific studies have documented the anticonvulsant effects of CBD, THC, and whole plant cannabis. CBD-dominant/low- THC cannabis strains and oil extracts can facilitate dramatic improvement in some children with intractable seizure disorders. Between 10-15 percent of severe childhood epileptics who are given CBD oil products experience a near complete cessation of seizures; most improve (with a decrease but not total elimination of seizures); and some children have worse seizures when they take CBD. Many parents of epileptic children have learned through trial and error that augmenting CBD-rich oil by adding some THC—or better yet, THCA, the unheated, non-psychoactive form of THC that’s present in raw cannabis flowers and leaves—helps with seizure control. The take-home message: Low-THC cannabis oil products don’t work for everyone. Patients of all ages need access to a wide spectrum of whole plant cannabis remedies, not just high CBD oil.
What Is The Right CBD/THC Ratio For Me?Cannabis therapeutics is personalized medicine. There is no single ratio or strain or product that’s right for everyone. Optimize your therapeutic use of cannabis by finding the proper combination of CBD and THC that works best for you. A person’s sensitivity to THC is a key factor in determining the appropriate ratio and dosage of CBD-rich medicine. Many people enjoy the cannabis high and can consume reasonable amounts of any cannabis product without feeling too high or dysphoric. Others find THC unpleasant. CBD can lessen or neutralize the intoxicating effects of THC. So a greater ratio of CBD-to- THC means less of a high. In some states with medical marijuana laws, cannabis oil concentrates and other products with varying ratios of CBD:THC are available so users can adjust or minimize psychoactive effects to suit their needs and sensitivities. Those who don’t like THC have the option of healing without the high by using a CBD-rich remedy with only a small amount of THC. But a low THC remedy, while not intoxicating, is not always the most effective treatment option. In essence, the goal is to administer consistent, measurable doses of a CBD-rich remedy that includes as much THC as a person is comfortable with.
Are Specific CBD/THC Ratios Better For Different Conditions?Some patterns are beginning to emerge. For anxiety, depression, spasms, psychosis, and seizure disorders, many people report they do well starting with a small dose of a CBD-rich remedy with little THC. For cancer, autism, and many other diseases, some say they benefit more from a balanced ratio of CBD and THC. Extensive clinical trials conducted outside the United States have shown that a 1:1 CBD:THC ratio can be effective for neuropathic pain. Some people use cannabis products with different CBD:THC ratios at different times of the day (more CBD for sunlight hours, more THC at night). Almost any cannabis strain or product theoretically could benefit a wide range of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders because THC and other cannabis components activate the CB2 cannabinoid receptor, which regulates immune function. Note: The CBD:THC ratio in not an indication of how much CBD or THC is present in a given cannabis product or strain.
What Is The Optimal Dosage Of CBD?An effective dosage can range from as little as a few milligrams of CBD-enriched cannabis oil to a gram or more. Begin with a small dose of high CBD/low THC oil, especially if you have little or no experience with cannabis. Take a few small doses over the course of the day rather than one big dose. Use the same dose and ratio for several days. Observe the effects and if necessary adjust the ratio or amount. Don’t overdo it. Cannabis compounds have biphasic properties, which means that low and high doses of the same substance can produce opposite effects. Small doses of cannabis tend to stimulate; large doses sedate. Too much THC, while not lethal, can amplify anxiety and mood disorders. CBD has no known adverse side effects, but an excessive amount of CBD could be less effective therapeutically than a moderate dose. “Less is more” is often the case with respect to cannabis therapy.
What Should One Look For When Choosing A CBD-Rich Product?Look for products with clear labels showing the quantity and ratio of CBD and THC per dose, a manufacturing date, and a batch number (for quality control). Select products with quality ingredients: No corn syrup, transfats, GMOs, artificial additives, thinning agents or preservatives. CBD-rich products should be lab tested for consistency and verified as being free of mold, bacteria, pesticides, solvent residues, and other contaminants. Best to avoid products extracted with toxic solvents like BHO, propane, hexane or other hydrocarbons. Opt for products that utilize safer extraction methods such as supercritical CO2 or food-grade ethanol.
If CBD Is So Good, Won’t Pure CBD Be Even Better?Single-molecule CBD will inevitably become a federally approved Big Pharma medicine. Products infused with a crystalline CBD isolate, derived and extensively refined from industrial hemp, are already being marketed by unregulated internet storefronts. But single-molecule CBD is less effective therapeutically than whole plant CBD-rich oil extract. Scientific studies have established that synthetic, single-molecule CBD has a very narrow therapeutic window and requires precise, high doses for efficacy, whereas lower dose, whole-plant, CBD-rich treatment regimens are already showing efficacy for many conditions among patients in medical marijuana states. Whether synthesized in a Big Pharma lab or derived from industrial hemp, single-molecule CBD lacks critical secondary cannabinoids and other medicinal compounds found in high-resin cannabis strains. These compounds interact with CBD and THC to enhance their therapeutic benefits. Scientists call this the “entourage effect.” Numerous cannabis compounds have medicinal attributes, but the therapeutic impact of whole plant cannabis is greater than the sum of its parts.
Is There A Difference Between CBD Derived From Hemp And CBD Derived From Marijuana?If you live in a state where medical marijuana is legal and available, look for CBD products made from high-resin cannabis (rather than low resin industrial hemp) that are sold in medical marijuana dispensaries. Hemp-derived CBD-infused products of varying quality are also available via dozens of internet storefronts. Compared to whole plant CBD-rich cannabis, industrial hemp is typically low in cannabinoid content. A huge amount of hemp is required to extract a small amount of CBD, thereby raising the risk of contaminants because hemp, a bioaccumulator, draws toxins from the soil. That’s a great feature for restoring a poisoned ecosystem, but it’s not recommended for extracting medicinal oil. Heavily refined CBD paste or terpene-free CBD powder is poor starter material for formulating CBD-rich oil products. The FDA has tested dozens of so-called CBD “hemp oil” products and found that in many cases these products contained little or no CBD. CBD-infused nutraceuticals have not been approved by the FDA as food supplements; nor are these products legal in all 50 U.S. states. By and large, however, interstate CBD commerce is tolerated by federal authorities.
Is It Safe To Inhale Hemp CBD Oil Fumes From A Vape Pen?Many cannabis- and hemp-derived CBD vape oil products include a thinning agent, which dilutes the oil that is heated and inhaled by vape pen users. Beware of vape pen oil that contains propylene glycol. When overheated, this chemical additive produces formaldehyde, a carcinogen, as a byproduct, according to a 2015 report in the New England Journal of Medicine. Why do so many vape oil products contain this thinning agent? It’s because of the dubious quality of the extracted material from which these unregulated cannabis oil products are made.
Does CBD Have Any Adverse Side Effects? What About Drug Interactions?CBD is a very safe substance, but patients taking other medications should check with their doctor about drug interactions, which are more likely when consuming high doses of single-molecule CBD products. At sufficient dosages, CBD will temporarily deactivate cytochrome P450 enzymes, thereby altering how we metabolize a wide range of compounds, including THC. Cytochrome P450 enzymes metabolize more than 60 percent of Big Pharma meds. CBD is a more potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450 than the grapefruit compound Bergapten, so ask your doctor if grapefruit interacts with your medication. If grapefruit does, then CBD probably does, too. Patients on a CBD-rich treatment regimen should monitor changes in blood levels of prescription medications and, if need be, adjust dosage.
Will Big Pharmaceutical Companies Control The CBD Market When Cannabis Is Legalized For Adult Use?Only if we let them. Cannabis is a medicinal herb and it should be regulated as an herb, not as a pharmaceutical or a street drug.
This story originally appeared on ProjectCBD.
A study presented at the Congress of the European Academy of Neurology in Amsterdam confirmed that cannabinoids are just as suitable as a prophylaxis for migraine attacks as other pharmaceutical treatments. Interestingly though, when it comes to treating acute cluster headaches they are only effective in patients that suffered from migraine in childhood.
Germany's recent decision to liberalize the use of cannabis for medical purposes has rekindled policy debate across Europe. While politics and health authorities continue to weigh up the pros and cons of this treatment method, researchers are constantly furthering scientific understanding of the use of cannabinoids.
Progress was reflected in the results of a current Italian study presented at the 3rd Congress of the European Academy of Neurology (EAN). A research team led by Dr. Maria Nicolodi investigated the suitability of cannabinoids as a prophylaxis for migraine and in the acute treatment of migraines and cluster headaches. To start with the researchers had to identify the dosage required to effectively treat headaches. A group of 48 chronic migraine volunteers were given a starting oral dose of 10mg of a combination of two compounds. One contained 19 percent tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and while the other had virtually no THC it had a 9 percent cannabidiol (CBD) content. The outcome was that doses of less than 100mg produced no effects. It was not until an oral dose of 200mg was administered that acute pain dropped by 55 per cent.
In phase 2 of the study, 79 chronic migraine patients were given a daily dose of either 25mg of amitriptyline - a tricyclic antidepressant commonly used to treat migraine - or 200mg of the THC-CBD combination for a period of three months. 48 cluster headache patients also received either 200mg THC-CBD or a daily dose of 480mg of the calcium channel blocker verapamil. For acute pain, an additional 200mg TCH-CBD was administered for both types of headaches.
he results after three months of treatment and follow-up after a further four weeks produced various insights. While the TCH-CBD combination yielded slightly better results than amitriptyline (40.1 percent) with a 40.4 percent reduction in attacks, the severity and number of cluster headache attacks only fell slightly. When analyzing use in the treatment of acute pain, the researchers came across an interesting phenomenon: cannabinoids reduced pain intensity among migraine patients by 43.5 percent. The same results were seen in cluster headache patients, but only in those that had experienced migraine in childhood. In patients without previous history, THC-CBD had no effect whatsoever as an acute treatment. "We were able to demonstrate that cannabinoids are an alternative to established treatments in migraine prevention. That said, they are only suited for use in the acute treatment of cluster headaches in patients with a history of migraine from childhood on," Dr Nicolodi summarized.
Drowsiness and difficulty concentrating aside, the side effects observed during the study were highly positive. The incidence of stomach ache, colitis and musculoskeletal pain - in female subjects - decreased.
Hemp protein powder and hemp seed oil are not only super-foods for people, but can also do wonders for your pet (including dogs, birds and horses). Hemp is filled with important and crucial nutrition including polyunsaturated good fats [with naturally occurring ideal 1:3 ratio of Omega-3 and Omega-6 essential fatty acids (EFAs)], protein, vitamins (including vitamin B1, B3, B6, B12, C, D, E), antioxidants, magnesium,potassium, calcium, fiber, iron, enzymes, and more – making it an excellent addition to your pet’s meal plan.
The benefits of hemp for your pet’s health include:
While the movement towards incorporating hemp into a companion animal’s diet is still in its infancy, veterinarians are also slowly starting to discover the value of this miracle plant.
It is important to note that dogs predominantly carnivorous and so are built to eat meat. That’s why hemp oil and hemp protein powder products need to be added as a supplement to the diet, not as a replacement.
While the research is still being done, regular users of CBD Hemp oil often report a wide variety of uses, benefits, and ways they use it to promote overall wellness. As research continues, we do know that our body contains cannabinoid receivers that allow CBD Hemp oil products to work with our body to maintain homeostasis.
What are the Benefits of Hemp Oil Products?
Hemp oil products contain fatty acids omega-3 and -6, such as linoleic acid which are known to be very important for a healthy brain. Omega-3 is particularly important because of its ability to repair damaged brain cells. Brain cells can become damaged as a result of stress and poor diet. CBD hemp oil has an incomparable composition of fatty acids and linoleic acid to help the brain be its healthiest.
Healthy Hair and Skin
While there are other more popular hair, skin and nail supplements, not many can be effectively used externally and internally. Fatty acids aid brain cell function internally but can also nourish skin cells as well. Omega-3 fatty acids replace moisture and natural oils back to your hair and skin, which give it both strength and vitality.
Hemp oil products also have probiotic capabilities. CBD hemp oil products contains a helpful amount of omega-3 fatty acids to support the growth of healthy microbes that live in our intestines. With their improved production, your body can fight illnesses, environmental contaminants, and germs more easily.
Some users find that CBD hemp oil may promote overall wellness to those who suffer from anxiety, depression, and other mental conditions. The more traditional prescription options often have undesirable side effects and require a strict treatment plan. CBD hemp oil can have a soothing effect on the body, allowing those who use it to think clearly and feel relaxed.
The instances of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been increasing at a rapid rate. If you happen to be a victim of the disorder, then you should consider CBD for PTSD. It will be rather amusing for you to know that cannabis has been found to be specifically effective for the victims of post-traumatic stress disorder.